Moving Inland
     Sumer
The Scene is Set: Ubaid
The Sumerians
Eridu to Uruk
     From Horticulture to Agriculture
Wealth, Status and War
     The Goddess in Transition
Nammu: The Sumerian Great Mother
Transcendent to Anthropomorphic
The Underworld: Ereshkigal

Ongoing Research


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  The Advent of Agriculture

Transition: Transcendent to Anthropomorphic

Anthropomorphism Encyclopaedia Britannica describes anthropomophism as 'the interpretation of nonhuman things or events in terms of human characteristics'.
"People in all cultures have attributed human characteristics to deities, often including jealousy, pride, and love. Even deities with an animal form, or with no physical form at all, are thought to understand prayer and other symbolic communication."
The article goes on to talk about why we humans do this. Read the article.

Ishtar: Mesopotamian goddess, written by the editiors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, describes the similarities between Ishtar and Inanna, and talks about their characteristics. It points out that Inanna was a fertility figure, saying, "... she was characterized as young, beautiful, and impulsive—never as helpmate or mother..." Of Ishtar it says, "Her popularity was universal in the ancient Middle East, and in many centres of worship she probably subsumed numerous local goddesses." Read more.

Ishtar and other Sumerian deities

This image of a panel from the British Museum, is described as: "Shamash, the sun god, rising in the morning from the eastern mountains between (left) Ishtar (Sumerian: Inanna), the goddess of the morning star, and (far left) Ninurta, the god of thunderstorms, with his bow and lion, and (right) Ea (Sumerian: Enki), the god of fresh water, with (far right) his vizier, the two-faced Usmu."